Left to fight alone, they were defeated. Alexander the Great leading his forces against a Persian army at the Battle of Issus in bce. Either way, he never named a successor.
The roots of the conquest were manifold. Only when his whim would have taken them still farther into unknown India did he fail to get his way. Leaving Porus, he then proceeded down the river and into the Indus, with half his forces on shipboard and half marching in three columns down the two banks.
At which Alexander reproachfully insulted over him: With the Athenians lost, the Thebans were surrounded.
He then laid siege to the heavily-fortified island of Tyre in January B. In reconciliation Alexander married her, and the rest of his opponents were either won over or crushed.
Phillip then drew his sword and advanced on the two men but before he reached them he collapsed onto the ground from drunkenness. When Alexander learned about this, he was furious. Alexander Kills Cleitus In B. Death of Alexander the Great By B. He rejected a plea from Darius for peace and took the towns of Byblos and Sidon.
He founded the city of Alexandria near the western arm of the Nile on a fine site between the sea and Lake Mareotis, protected by the island of Pharos, and had it laid out by the Rhodian architect Deinocrates. On his reaching the oracle in its oasisthe priest gave him the traditional salutation of a pharaohas son of Amon; Alexander consulted the god on the success of his expedition but revealed the reply to no one.
Some tribes surrendered peacefully; others did not. He had come to envisage a joint ruling people consisting of Macedonians and Persians, and this served to augment the misunderstanding that now arose between him and his people.
He took another approach and sliced through the knot with his sword, claiming triumph. Ten thousand veterans were now sent back to Macedonia with gifts, and the crisis was surmounted.
With the Athenians lost, the Thebans were surrounded. Alexander quickly assembled a modest fighting force of 37, Greek and Macedonian infantrymen along with cavalry units and marched into Asia Minor and faced his first line of resistance at the Granicus River. These men were reputed to be extremely ready and succinct in their answers, which he made trial of, by putting difficult questions to them, letting them know that those whose answers were not pertinent, should be put to death.
Some historians believe Alexander killed his general in a fit of drunkenness—a persistent problem that plagued him through much of his life.
However, it appears Philip never intended to disown his politically and militarily trained son. The decisive battle of the war was fought on October 31, on the plain of Gaugamela between Nineveh and Arbela. The far-reaching schemes for the conquest of the western Mediterranean and the setting up of a universal monarchy, recorded by Diodorus Siculusa 1st-century Greek historian, are probably based on a later forgery; if not, they were at once jettisoned by his successors and the army.
When the Thessalians awoke the next day, they found Alexander in their rear and promptly surrendered, adding their cavalry to Alexander's force. The following spring at Babylon he received complimentary embassies from the Libyans and from the Bruttians, Etruscansand Lucanians of Italy; but the story that embassies also came from more distant peoples, such as Carthaginians, CeltsIberiansand even Romans, is a later invention.
They refused to practice proskynesis and some plotted his death. After several weeks, he took the town and entered Egypt where he established the city that still bears his name: Local opposition led Nearchus to set sail in Septemberand he was held up for three weeks until he could pick up the northeast monsoon in late October.
Moreover, he needed the wealth of Persia if he was to maintain the army built by Philip and pay off the talents he owed. This so irritated Alexander, that throwing one of the cups at his head, "You villain," said he, "what, am I then a bastard.
This discontent was now fanned by the arrival of 30, native youths who had received a Macedonian military training and by the introduction of Asian peoples from BactriaSogdianaArachosiaand other parts of the empire into the Companion cavalry ; whether Asians had previously served with the Companions is uncertain, but if so they must have formed separate squadrons.
Bessus was now in Bactria raising a national revolt in the eastern satrapies with the usurped title of Great King. Legendary accounts surround the life of Alexander the Great, many deriving from his own lifetime, probably encouraged by Alexander himself.
His court historian Callisthenes portrayed the sea in Cilicia as drawing back from him in sgtraslochi.com: Philip II of Macedon. Alexander the Great: The Brief Life and Towering Exploits of History's Greatest Conqueror--As Told By His Original Biographers Oct 26, by Arrian and Plutarch.
Life and Times of Alexander the Great Introduction Alexander the great made an impact on world history that few individuals can profess to have done. He ruled.
Watch video · Alexander the Great was born in the Pella region of the Ancient Greek kingdom of Macedonia on July 20, B.C., to parents King Philip II of Macedon and Queen Olympia, daughter of King Neoptolemus.
A short biography describes 's life, times, and work. Also explains the historical and literary context that influenced Alexander the Great. Watch video · Early Life.
Alexander the Great was born in the Pella region of the Ancient Greek kingdom of Macedonia on July 20, B.C., to parents King Philip II of Macedon and Queen Olympia, daughter of King Neoptolemus. The young prince and his sister were raised in Pella's royal court.Life of alexander the great from